Israel were at the wilderness of Sinai, and camped before the mount.
Exo 19:1 In the third month after the children of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on the same day, they came to the Wilderness of Sinai.
Exo 19:2 For they had departed from Rephidim, had come to the Wilderness of Sinai, and camped in the wilderness. So Israel camped there before the mountain.
God called to Moses from the mountain.
Exo 19:3 And Moses went up to God, and the LORD called to him from the mountain, saying, "Thus you shall say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel:
God used eagleís wings, and brought the Israelites to Himself.
Exo 19:4 'You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles' wings and brought you to Myself.
If the Israelites kept Godís covenant they would be a peculiar treasure to God.
Exo 19:5 Now therefore, if you will indeed obey My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be a special treasure to Me above all people; for all the earth is Mine.
The Israelites would be a holy nation, if they kept the covenant.
Exo 19:6 And you shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.' These are the words which you shall speak to the children of Israel."
Exo 19:7 So Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and laid before them all these words which the LORD commanded him.
Exo 19:8 Then all the people answered together and said, "All that the LORD has spoken we will do." So Moses brought back the words of the people to the LORD.
God told Moses that he would come down on the third day.
Exo 19:9 And the LORD said to Moses, "Behold, I come to you in the thick cloud, that the people may hear when I speak with you, and believe you forever." So Moses told the words of the people to the LORD.
Exo 19:10 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Go to the people and consecrate them today and tomorrow, and let them wash their clothes.
Exo 19:11 And let them be ready for the third day. For on the third day the LORD will come down upon Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people.
On the third day, God would come down to the mountain. God told Moses to go down and make sure that no one would touch the mountain.
Exo 19:12 You shall set bounds for the people all around, saying, 'Take heed to yourselves that you do not go up to the mountain or touch its base. Whoever touches the mountain shall surely be put to death.
Exo 19:13 Not a hand shall touch him, but he shall surely be stoned or shot with an arrow; whether man or beast, he shall not live.' When the trumpet sounds long, they shall come near the mountain."
Exo 19:14 So Moses went down from the mountain to the people and sanctified the people, and they washed their clothes.
Exo 19:15 And he said to the people, "Be ready for the third day; do not come near your wives."
Exo 19:16 Then it came to pass on the third day, in morning, that there were thunderings and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain; and the sound of the trumpet was very loud, so that all the people who were in the camp trembled.
Exo 19:17 And Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain.
Exo 19:18 Now Mount Sinai was completely in smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire. Its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly.
Exo 19:19 And when the blast of the trumpet sounded long and became louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by voice.
The Lord is God the Father, He is the one who came down to Mount Sinai and talked to Moses, in a cloud. The people could hear Him but not see Him.
Exo 19:20 Then the LORD came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. And the LORD called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up.
Exo 19:21 And the LORD said to Moses, "Go down and warn the people, lest they break through to gaze at the LORD, and many of them perish.
Exo 19:22 Also let the priests who come near the LORD consecrate themselves, lest the LORD break out against them."
Exo 19:23 But Moses said to the LORD, "The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai; for You warned us, saying, 'Set bounds around the mountain and consecrate it.' "
Exo 19:24 Then the LORD said to him, "Away! Get down and then come up, you and Aaron with you. But do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to the LORD, lest He break out against them."
Exo 19:25 So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them.
The Ten Commandments were the covenant. God the Father gave the Commandments to Moses. It was not Jesus, because He cannot be looked upon and He appeared to Moses in a cloud, so in fact He could still speak to Moses but Moses was not able to look upon Him.
Exo 20:1 And God spoke all these words, saying:
Exo 20:2 "I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
Exo 20:3 "You shall have no other gods before Me.
Exo 20:4 "You shall not make for yourself a carved imageóany likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;
Exo 20:5 you shall not bow down to them nor serve them. For I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me,
Exo 20:6 but showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.
Exo 20:7 "You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain.
Exo 20:8 "Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
Exo 20:9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work,
Exo 20:10 but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the LORD your God. In it you shall do no work: you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates.
Exo 20:11 For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.
Exo 20:12 "Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long upon the land which the LORD your God is giving you.
Exo 20:13 "You shall not murder.
Exo 20:14 "You shall not commit adultery.
Exo 20:15 "You shall not steal.
Exo 20:16 "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
Exo 20:17 "You shall not covet your neighbor's house; you shall not covet your neighbor's wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor's."
The Israelites were scared when they witnessed the thunder, lightning and the trumpet blasts, but Moses told them that the reasons for this fear was a test so that the people would fear God and would not sin.
Exo 20:18 Now all the people witnessed the thunderings, the lightning flashes, the sound of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled and stood afar off.
Exo 20:19 Then they said to Moses, "You speak with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die."
Exo 20:20 And Moses said to the people, "Do not fear; for God has come to test you, and that His fear may be before you, so that you may not sin."
Notice that God the Father was in thick darkness.
Exo 20:21 So the people stood afar off, but Moses drew near the thick darkness where God was.
Exo 20:22 Then the LORD said to Moses, "Thus you shall say to the children of Israel: 'You have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.
Exo 20:23 You shall not make anything to be with Meógods of silver or gods of gold you shall not make for yourselves.
Exo 20:24 An altar of earth you shall make for Me, and you shall sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your oxen. In every place where I record My name I will come to you, and I will bless you.
Exo 20:25 And if you make Me an altar of stone, you shall not build it of hewn stone; for if you use your tool on it, you have profaned it.
Exo 20:26 Nor shall you go up by steps to My altar, that your nakedness may not be exposed on it.'
The Ten Commandments are the old covenant.
Exo 21:1 "Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them:
Exo 21:2 If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years; and in the seventh he shall go out free and pay nothing.
Exo 21:3 If he comes in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he comes in married, then his wife shall go out with him.
Exo 21:4 If his master has given him a wife, and she has borne him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself.
Exo 21:5 But if the servant plainly says, 'I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,'
Exo 21:6 then his master shall bring him to the judges. He shall also bring him to the door, or to the doorpost, and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl; and he shall serve him forever.
Exo 21:7 "And if a man sells his daughter to be a female slave, she shall not go out as the male slaves do.
Exo 21:8 If she does not please her master, who has betrothed her to himself, then he shall let her be redeemed. He shall have no right to sell her to a foreign people, since he has dealt deceitfully with her.
Exo 21:9 And if he has betrothed her to his son, he shall deal with her according to the custom of daughters.
Exo 21:10 If he takes another wife, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marriage rights.
Exo 21:11 And if he does not do these three for her, then she shall go out free, without paying money.
Exo 21:12 "He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death.
Exo 21:13 However, if he did not lie in wait, but God delivered him into his hand, then I will appoint for you a place where he may flee.
Exo 21:14 "But if a man acts with premeditation against his neighbor, to kill him by treachery, you shall take him from My altar, that he may die.
Exo 21:15 "And he who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.
Exo 21:16 "He who kidnaps a man and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, shall surely be put to death.
Exo 21:17 "And he who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.
Exo 21:18 "If men contend with each other, and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but is confined to his bed,
Exo 21:19 if he rises again and walks about outside with his staff, then he who struck him shall be acquitted. He shall only pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed.
Exo 21:20 "And if a man beats his male or female servant with a rod, so that he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished.
Exo 21:21 Notwithstanding, if he remains alive a day or two, he shall not be punished; for he is his property.
Exo 21:22 "If men fight, and hurt a woman with child, so that she gives birth prematurely, yet no harm follows, he shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman's husband imposes on him; and he shall pay as the judges determine.
Exo 21:23 But if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life,
Exo 21:24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,
Exo 21:25 burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.
Exo 21:26 "If a man strikes the eye of his male or female servant, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for the sake of his eye.
Exo 21:27 And if he knocks out the tooth of his male or female servant, he shall let him go free for the sake of his tooth.
Exo 21:28 "If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, then the ox shall surely be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be acquitted.
Exo 21:29 But if the ox tended to thrust with its horn in times past, and it has been made known to his owner, and he has not kept it confined, so that it has killed a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death.
Exo 21:30 If there is imposed on him a sum of money, then he shall pay to redeem his life, whatever is imposed on him.
Exo 21:31 Whether it has gored a son or gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him.
Exo 21:32 If the ox gores a male or female servant, he shall give to their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.
Exo 21:33 "And if a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls in it,
Exo 21:34 the owner of the pit shall make it good; he shall give money to their owner, but the dead animal shall be his.
Exo 21:35 "If one man's ox hurts another's, so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the money from it; and the dead ox they shall also divide.
Exo 21:36 Or if it was known that the ox tended to thrust in time past, and its owner has not kept it confined, he shall surely pay ox for ox, and the dead animal shall be his own.